This Article Essay On Volcanoes was prepared by me when I was in Std VII for my Social Science Project.


A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments.

How are Volcanoes formed?
Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth’s upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits.

Categories of Volcanoes:
Scientists have categorized volcanoes into three main categories:
Active : A Volcano which has recently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon.
Dormant : A Volcano which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future.
Extinct : A Volcano which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption

What are the different types of volcanoes?
Volcanoes are grouped into four types: cinder cones, composite volcanoes, shield volcanoes and lava volcanoes.

How are Volcanoes harmful?
Volcano eruptions have been known to destroy entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.

Largest active volcano
There are more than 1500 active volcanoes on the Earth. We currently know of 80 or more which are under the oceans.

The world’s largest, active volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, which is 13,677 feet above sea level. From its base below sea level to its summit, Mauna Loa is taller than Mount Everest.

The top 10 active volcanoes are :
1. Yellow Stone Caldera (USA)
2. Mt. Vesuviius (Italy)
3. Mt. Nyiragongo (Congo)
4. Sakurajima (Japan)
5. Galeras (Colombia)
6. Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)
7. Santa Maria (Guatemala)
8. Mt. Merapi (Indonesia)
9. Taal volcano (Phillipines)
10. Mauna Loa Volcano (Hawaii)

Article Essay On Volcanoes for Std VII
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